Last year I went to see a bone setter for a report (I referenced it here) I was writing for a publication, unfortunately they didn’t use it and it has been on my laptop since then. I decided to upload it here for two reasons: the first is, I can’t leave it to languish on my laptop, I spent too much time on it. The second is I am supposed to write a piece on Benin art but the ginger hasn’t been there, maybe uploading this will give me the push or in Terry G’s words it will ginger my writing swaggah to finally start the piece. The things we do for our art abi?

My final year project was on traditional medicine and it involved interviewing traditonal medicine practitioners and I enjoyed every minute of it. They know soooo much and we have barely scratched the surface of the knowledge of indigenous medicinal use of plants. Writing this piece was a big pleasure for me and I hope you’ll enjoy it too.

Before I start this piece, I want to throw this open here. I’m going to Badagry in Febuary, one of the weekends but I’m not sure which though. It’s a visit to the slave port and other historical centers. If you want to come, let me know so I can know how to plan for transport, food and other logistics.



It is the screaming that shows you’ve arrived Taju Thompson Drive on a Monday or Thursday or Saturday. Confessions of long forgotten sins, pleas for mercy to God, to mothers and to the person inflicting the pain get louder as you progress down the short street. You walk into a small veranda and see various people with bandaged body parts, you’re in the bone setter’s clinic.


Mrs. Nkwocha is the head of the team at the Immaculate Traditional Bone Setters and they are based in Lagos with their headquarters in Imo State of Nigeria. The team is strictly comprised of members of her family- her children, cousins and siblings, outsiders are never employed. She says it’s a gift from God to her family and only blood descendants of the family line can go into the business. She doesn’t train outsiders either.


“Even my husband cannot do this job even though we’ve been married for over thirty years” she said when I asked her if she trains people who are interested in the profession. She’d been in the profession since she was a girl and other members of the team had also shown aptitude for the vocation since their own childhood.

Her patients come from various parts of Lagos and other parts of South West Nigeria, She’s often seen as a bone setter of last resort, the one who can handle the most complex bone issues and injuries, she receives referrals from different parts of Lagos. When patients come in, they are assessed for extent of injury/damage by Mrs Nkwocha; rarely do the other setters assess new patients. Sometimes the patient is asked to go for an x-ray but this also occurs very rarely and this is usually done to reassure anxious patients/relatives and to exhibit their own expert knowledge. The x-rays usually confirm her initial diagnosis.

The patients I met there were very confident in her abilities, most of them were directed or referred to her by former patients and they’ve also seen massive improvement in their own cases. A man who’d fallen into a gutter and fractured his tibia told me how much he’d have been encased in a Plaster of Paris and hung like a chicken if he’d gone to an orthodox hospital and he wouldn’t even have seen the kind of improvement he’d seen in the three weeks he’d been coming to the bone setters.

The resident doctors at the National Orthopaedic Hospital in Lagos and other federal tertiary hospitals are on strike over unfulfilled promises made by government and non-payment of three months salaries to doctors at one of the Federal Medical Centres. With strikes like this as a common occurrence in the Nigerian healthcare sector and private hospital facilities out of the reach of most Nigerians due to their exorbitant charges. Many Nigerians have begun to resort to alternative/traditional medicine to meet their health challenges.

After the assessment of the patients for extent of injury/damage to the affected part, treatment commences. She charges monthly fees but treatment can begin if they pay a deposit of 50% of the full charge. Clinic days are Mondays and Thursdays for massaging and setting while Saturdays are mainly for steam therapy.

The typical treatment procedure begins with untying of the patient’s bandages and examining the progress of treatment, for cases like arthritis, bandages are not used. After the untying, the patients wash off the clay that has been used to coat the injured part in the previous treatment.

The next stage is the massage of the affected part, a bone is used to press against the skin in this procedure. When I ask her about the origin of the bone used in this process. “Was it animal or human?” I asked. She smiled and told me she couldn’t pin down the exact animal the bone came from as the bones are sourced by her father and she hadn’t really thought about it. She admitted that it might be human because the bone had to be durable and human bones were very strong. I asked her if animals like cows and goats can be used and she said those bones were brittle and would only last for a week.20150723_085245.jpg


Screams of pain always accompany the massaging, I watch a mother tell her son not to cry too much because she’ll cry too. The son is in twenties and he came for a fractured middle finger, eventually his mother gives in and cries too, she’s still crying even when the massaging ends. It is the son who consoles her, he tells her not to cry and it’s even over- at least for today.

Amaechi- one of the bone setters and Mrs Nkwocha’s first son, almost loses his temper at his friend who’s crying because of the treatment.

“Be a man” he tells him, “if they call for men, will you not come out?”

“I am not men for now, after this thing goes I go be man but for now I be woman sef” he says and the whole room erupts in laughter.

Amaechi laughs too even though he mutters “she men” under his breath. Pain has no gender we all agree. Another patient tells of his first experience with the massage, his leg had been almost crushed by the tire of a coaster bus. He didn’t feel any pain on that day but his first treatment made him realise that labour pains must be horrible and it made him respect his wife much more.

Most of the patients arrive by the motorcycle taxi known as okada. Ironically these taxies are the leading cause of orthopaedic injury in Lagos but they are the most accessible and affordable means of transport for most of the residents. A particular patient causes a stir when she’s brought in by a female okada rider, in this part of the country, female riders are a rarity.

After the massage comes the application of clay, the clay is meant to relax the veins of the patient. The wound healing process is aided by the increase of blood flow to the injured site and the relaxing of the veins creates more space for the blood to flow within them with increase in blood flow as the resultant effect.20150723_103759.jpg

She uses two types of clay- The red clay and the black clay. The red clay is used for almost all the clients, the clay is supplied by a man in Ikotun. She doesn’t know how the clay is sourced- just like the bone used in massaging, she’s more interested in results. Clay is not used for open wounds due to the risk of infection, she manages the open wound with shea butter until it heals and does light massages before she can start the normal treatment procedures

The black clay she sources herself from the bush, she adds certain herbs to it and applies it in special cases. Black clay is used for patients with flaccid paralysis whose nerves need strengthening as she puts it. I ask her if she incorporates herbal mixtures in her practice and she said apart from the herb infused clay, she only uses herbs for arthritis treatment and her brother makes that concoction. She actually recommends orthodox drugs for her patients, like chymoral (an anti-inflammatory drug) for the swelling that is common in injuries and pain relieving drugs for the pains.

The clay is applied and left to dry, at this time most of the patients have stopped crying, some can even be seen smiling. Her patients range from infants to very old people and in the three hours I spent there, I saw more than fifty patients including a three month old baby who had a fractured right humerus (upper arm bone) and an eighty five year old woman who came for arthritis treatment.

She has facilities for admission but she only admits patients with leg or hip injuries who live faraway or for whom mobility is practically impossible due to the nature of their injuries- those with femur and hip fractures fall into that category. She insists that a member of the patient’s family stays with them and she does not provide meals for such patients. Patients have to source for their meals themselves, she doesn’t have time to prepare meals- she says.

After the clay dries comes the retying of the wound with bandages. Gauze bandages are used and they are available for sale at the clinic. Wooden splints are used to support the limb before the bandages are used. In this clinic bamboo is the source material for the splint, it is prized for its flexibility and durability. I ask if plywood can be used instead and she said the stiffness of plywood renders it useless for the task, it is essential for the wood to be flexible because this flexibility and strength mimics that of the skin and the patient doesn’t feel extreme discomfort. 20150723_090029.jpg
After the splint application and the tying of the bandage, the patient is free to go. At this time discussion of the progress of treatment is usually done and the patient is given advice on further management of the wound and the next appointment is scheduled.

The patients sing her praises and tell me how much their cases have improved, some of them have had the injuries for years. There’s a nine year old boy with a fractured humerus that occurred two years ago and wasn’t properly handled at the private hospital. He’s lost flexibility of his elbow and his upper arm had been shortened, his father explained that after one month of treatment with the bone setter, he began to move his elbow a little.
“A major breakthrough” his father said.

I lingered a little and watched people come and go, all of them happy with the services provided by the bone setter. It occurred to me that our disdain for traditional medicine is not only sad but a betrayal of who we are as a people.


  1. True. Still I wonder if we didn’t abandon it because of its ties to “juju” and evil spirits. Some things wax and wane in popularity. I do hope that this will wax stronger, where the bonesetters are good and know what they are doing.


    1. I don’t think it’s so much of juju and evil spirits but of thinking that our indigenous medicine is local and primitive while the oyibo medicine is better and sophisticated. Recently, my father was telling someone how he’d taken agbo that morning and the man said how can an educated man like you be taking agbo? I felt so sad for him.
      Ironically, many of the so called modern drugs were derived from plants just like our ancestors derived theirs. They were only better at packaging theirs and playing on our insecurities. There are soo many plants in our environment that can be used for various ailments but they are ignored.


      1. I know boo. You should write a book based on what you’ve learnt. In a bus one day someone was selling one such book but I did not have the money to buy it. I’ve been super sad about it for a while. How’s you by the way?

      2. I’m good darling
        I definitely will write a book on that one day, even if it’s an e-book. I think we should learn more about nature and how we can benefit from it.
        How are you Nne?

      3. No wonder you abandoned your blog! I’ll have to uproot you from your wifi comfort zone to write.
        Speaking of writing, when am I getting a guest post from thee!

      4. Say the word (give me a topic) and I’m at your service. By the way, I just posted something now. Wi-Fi is not all bad.

  2. Had a good laugh and you gave me something to reflect on. I want to go to Badagry oo. The mystery behind traditional medicine is just they can’t explain the HOW and WHY of the disease and the treatment, but if time, resources are invested into unravelling the mystery, maybe we might fully buy into the remedy offered by traditionalist. A patient who tried to bring his blood glucose to normal range using all the recommended drugs to no avail was able to do that with traditional medicine, but the traditional doctor can’t explain how it works. So I believe in its potency but I don’t like its mystery.


  3. This is a very good article and I think you should move for publication in either Vanguard or Guardian, infact you should start contributing to the art section in any of the popular newspapers.

    You see, in 2001, my mom fractured her ankle on her way to church and a bone setter came and after enduring daily massages and loud screams (my mom is so strong, I’ve never seen her cry so much), we thought it was getting better. One day, the leg began to swell and the bone setter came again (she’s an ijaw woman) and she took a sharp blade and made little cuts on my mom’s leg to lose the bad blood, she said. It didn’t still get better, my mom was walking but with a stick. That was when she decided to go to the orthopaedic hospital Igbobi where the doctors were angry that she sought traditional help (they were able to tell due to the razor cuts on her feet). Anyway, after the X-ray, it was found that there was actually a crack in the bone and she had to be on a cast for months. This happened in February and she was at home till September, (no church, no work, no outings) we feel that if she had gone to Igbobi on time, she wouldn’t have gone through needless pain and healing wouldn’t have taken so much time.
    It is needless to say that when I had a bike accident two years ago, I was rushed to Igbobi hospital and even after spending an agonizing night at the ward and later having my leg in a cast for just one week, I returned to work in three weeks even though I used a knee brace for about a month. I understand that traditional medicine has its uses but then again, is it 100% sure?
    I know a man in my church who had an accident and was rushed to a traditional medicine clinic and now,one leg is considerably shorter than the other. Could it also be that where traditional medicine is concerned, one really has to be ‘called’ to it? This is because many people are delving into it as it is seen as a money-making enterprise.

    Another instance is my kid cousin who lives in Onitsha and who was sent on an errand during the rainy season, she fell and dislocated her hip and my uncle has refused to hear modern medicine as the girl is still undergoing traditional care and this accident which happened in August has refused to fully heal till today.
    I might be wrong but, I am no fan of traditional medicine especially when it has to do with the bone. If you have never experienced it (pray you never do) you can’t begin to imagine the pain that is associated with bone problems and I have experienced it first hand (you can pass out from the pain). At the orthopaedic hospital, the doctors do not handle the bones with so much pressure, they are very careful with it, thus avoiding pain and even when the pop is being placed, you might feel discomfort but then, it’s just for a while. They also encourage the use of crutches or slings as the case maybe so that patients do not put so much pressure on the bone. I guess I could go traditional for other things but never for the bone because I’ve experienced both sides (trad and modern) first hand.

    You mentioned a trip to Badagry, sure, I could definitely use a trip and I hope I have a free schedule on the proposed Saturday. Please hit me up with the date via my email: adaezewrites@gmail.com Thanks dear.

    I thoroughly enjoyed reading.


  4. What? My epistle just went away with the wind? I spent minutes typing in a long reply to this post and I can’t find it *Cries loudly*
    Ha! I can’t remember what I typed ooo…what kind of internet is this biko?
    Anyway, I am interested in the Badagry trip (I hope I have a free schedule) please hit me up via my email with updates. adaezewrites@gmail.com

    Thanks dear.
    As I said in my first comment which miraculously disappeared, this post needs to go up in Vanguard or Guardian.


  5. Wonders of the earth. I’ve always been a fan of traditional medicine as opposed to the conventional and pharmaceutical route. I’ve had relatives that used the services of bone setters after conventional medicine failed them. In the end, they nothing but positive reviews. On the other hand, a few didn’t work out, but again, same could have happened with Oyinbo’s medicine.
    Though not this mechanical and technical, I’ve had lots of concussions made from herbs by the grandmother, all of which worked. Also, here in the Virgin Islands, my ex’s grandmother, still very much believes in herbs. She has a garden full of all manner of herbs that tackle all manner of illnesses. But of course, my ex being a doctor, frowns at it, me on he other hand, I enjoyed having her close. Lol
    Thanks for the post, sorry I’m having my own epistle underneath here.


    1. Please epistle away, I always enjoy reading your words.
      I like the point you raised about negative results coming from any side of the medical divide, we tend to only remember the negative reviews of traditional medicine and forget that sometimes even orthodox medicine is ineffectual.
      It’s sad that your ex frowns on his grandmother’s practice instead of embracing it, he could even become a better doctor by learning her secrets. He doesn’t even have to incorporate it into his practice, he could just play his role in passing down that knowledge to future generations.
      See me ranting about it sef!


  6. Orthopaedic (see long , confusion laden and tongue twisting title) vs Bone Setters (simply pronounced and straight forward job description title).

    I believe its our collective perception as a black continent of the white man capabilities which they inoculate us with for some years had eroded to some extent the value of our own herbs.
    While I was young and living with my grandmother, all the children around myself inclusive literally wake up to herbal concoction (Heaven help the child that is acting sleepy when granny wake us, a strong cane land on your head which automatically accelerate your brain waves and cell to open thy mouth to receive – the water of life).
    Some doctors are against traditional practitioners based on the theory that there is no presence of standard practice among them and also the disharmony, serenity of the environment they work in is nothing to write home about. However such doc are not ashamed to visit a Chinese herbal shop to purchase whatever.
    Methinks our traditional practitioners are really doing a whole lot job and kudos to them, but there is need for more sophisticated branding, work environment, etc. I don’t quite blame much tho as many of them are uneducated but the few educated ones are doing better

    I also thinks availability,proximity and bills also plays a vital roles somehow when we juxtapose the two practitioners.

    Devil Advocate: How do you expects someone who spent almost 12 years to acquire his license as a doc to support his other colleague😁. Its almost an anathema!😕. E be like say I Don dey vex. Wat consign me we set?😯

    Now I have written an epistle on what I haven’t experience. All of una pls coolu coolu temper *waving politician’s hand*

    Lest I forget to chip in that I had a testimony to share of one my very carefree cousin who broke his left arm twice. Its was the trado guys that did it. Praaaiseee the Lord.

    This your project was an awesome one Thanks for sharing


  7. Autocorrect doesnt like me sha. Track (Trado guys), set(sef)).

    The part of the article where a man confessed his womanliness is crack me up. Pain is in grade o, I’m a bonafide living testimony of the pains that toothache confer on my previous version self of pain endurance. The toothache took my pain endurance beyond maximum threshold. I don’t even need to twist my eyes – tears just scroll down my cheek in torrent on their own accord.


  8. My maternal uncle does this.

    I believe in divine health more than in traditional stuff though.
    My mom says, he’s good. My grandma too, but then that is their family heritage.
    I put my heritage in Christ first.


    1. Walking in divine health is the calling of every Christian. However we shouldn’t hesitate in doing that which makes this world a better place, even though we are not of this world, we still have to live in it.


  9. I don’t know what have been happening to my comments under this post but oh well…

    I enjoyed the article and feel that you should publish it in Vanguard of the Guardian, you write so well and you described the whole experience perfectly.

    In early 2000, my mom fractured her ankle and we had a bone setter come over to the house to treat her, it wasn’t a good experience and she cried (I have never seen my mom cry) but that day, she wailed like a baby. At the end of the treatment, she wasn’t still getting better, yes the ijaw woman had set the bone but the leg was still swelling even after using a razor to make cuts on the leg (in order to rid it of bad blood). My mom had to go to Igbobi orthopaedic hospital and when she got there she found out that the bone had actually been fractured and she needed a POP to set it back together. It is needless to say that when I had a bike accident, we never thought of traditional care, rather, I was rushed to Igbobi and what would have sent me down a journey of pain in the hands of a traditional bone setter was averted as I was admitted for a day and had a cast on my leg for a week. In total, I spent about a month in recovery. I do encourage the work of the traditional bone setters as in the old days when there was no modern medicine, they were the only hope for the people. The only thing I am against is, when some people spring up with claims of knowing how to set bones when they actually know nothing but see it as a money making business. We must admit that there are quacks in the business.

    My little cousin who is ten sustained injuries to her pelvic bone at Onitsha since August 2015 and as we speak, she has not recovered fully as she was taken to a traditional bone setter. I know a man whose leg has been shortened after visiting a traditional bone setter. When it comes to bone, I am for modern medicine all the way and even though there exists true traditionalists who can set bones I’d rather that those that do not know how to handle such cases, leave the practice.

    On the badagry trip, yes, I am interested and would love to go!


    1. Oh wow! what a terrible experience to have to go through. I met Mrs Nkwocha when my youngest brother had a fracture and she handled it very well. However I agree that there are many charlatans in that sector just like in any other sector. I can also vouch for National Orthopaedic hospital Igbobi for their professionalism and commitment to their patients, I saw all that first hand for the eleven months there as an intern. The bone setters can sanitise their sector by standardizing their operations, investing in continuing education and updating their knowledge and most importantly not biting off more than they can chew. If a case is beyond them, they should refer the patients to where they can get appropriate care.
      Yay for the Badagry trip, I’ll send you an email soon.


  10. And that was how my comments found their way back and they are three *covers face* I must be such a desperate commenter….
    Yay to the badagry trip, expecting your email soon.


    1. Your comments went to my spam folder, I can’t even explain why that happened.
      Will send the email tomorrow or so, want to finalise a few things before we start fine tuning arrangements.


  11. Hi Adaeze,

    This well-written article was very informative. Thank you.

    I remember a class-mate of mine who had an accident that left her with a bad limp, she later went to visit a bone-setter for treatment.

    I like the air of mystery surrounding Mrs. Nkwocha’s expertise, I suppose she’s good at her craft because of her passion.

    The story of the mother who cried with her son was both heart-warming and funny. 🙂

    Enjoy the rest of the week.


    1. I wish bad things didn’t have to happen, I met Mrs Nkwocha when my then 13 year old brother had an accident and his tibia and fibula were fractured. At the time, doctors were on strike and my dad did not trust private hospitals to handle it well. My brother doesn’t even have a limp or a scar from the accident now.
      There’s an air of mystery all right, all traditional medicine practitioners have it. I don’t think you can practice traditional medicine without it, it’s probably in their bye-law or code of conduct or something.
      I’m glad you found the story of the mother heart warming, at the time I just found it funny. You see, when my brother used to go there for treatment, we’d all (My mum, my other brother and I) cry with him. Seeing her brought back memories and made me realise how we must have seemed back then.
      Thanks for stopping by Nedu and please update your blog soon (preferably today) I miss your writing.


      1. Lol… I’ll update soon, this harmattan version 2.0 has made me lazy (I just had to blame something).

        Thank you for the sweet reminder. Enjoy the rest of the weekend.

  12. I think the reason why most people fear the traditional treatment, is cos the herb concoction does not have dosage, they just administer it and we all know too much of anything is bad. Besides most of these trado care claim to do a whole lot, only one herb they will claim it cures all the sickness under this earth… My dear me I’m skeptical when it comes to trado drugs, I like my liver and kidneys intact not overworking.

    I really enjoyed this post as usual. How are you hun?


    1. The funny thing is that even our conventional drugs are not so accurately dosed either, if you stop to think of you’ll realise that a woman who weighs 55kg shouldn’t take the same dose of a drug with her age mate who weighs 110 which is practically twice her size. I agree that a lot can be done to standardise our traditional medicine and make a thing of pride, do you know how much these Chinese and Indian guys are making from things like Tianshi and Ayurveda? It’s income we can easily make, although I do not have much hope that it will do well in naija because a prophet is not recognized in his hometown.
      I’m good nne, just chilling as they say
      Thanks for stopping by Lohla, How’s Sean and Oga at the top? Oya hurry up and update your blog


  13. Another interesting piece, Ada. My mum is pro when it comes to making “agbo”. Ha! That woman ehn.

    Nothing beats natural – natual hair, natural hair treatment, natural medicine, natural air etc – nature has its own healing and calming effect on the body as well as the soul.

    Traditional medicine is so underrated.

    And yes, this article needs to be on Vanguard. How do we get it there asap?

    P.S. That Badagry trip will make sense. Will let you know when I make up my mind.

    Cheers. 🙂


    1. Lol @ Pro when making agbo, I have agbo nightmares because I hate bitter things.
      Natural anything is pretty good although there are several schools of thought that don’t quite agree.
      Vanguard abi? Maybe I’ll send it in. Thanks for stopping by Amaka.


  14. …Hmmmnnn! See Article of Destiny eh!! **Sits up on Jangolova Chair! @ “only blood descendants of the family line can go into the business” aha! waRRapin ni?! Shuo for dayssss!! Ezz never that deep Biko. never!! So 50 something plus people visited her during your stay there?! Omo! **Slaps self.. aYam officially in the wrong career oH! this woman be making millions on a lowkey level! **Scratches back of neck.. She aint faking it there oh sam sam!

    And the Amaechi guy is just a crazy brover.. heheheheheh Omo!!! Baba Turn Transgender lori pain oh! lmao.

    You know yeah Ada.. one of the saddest things about Nigeria and Africa if i must add is that we have totally “diabolised” (new word alert) the Traditional form of Treatment :).. I mean whether we agree or not Otunne.. Traditional Medicines are far far more effective.

    I recently had a painful Tooth ache.. Went to the Dentist and they used needle and plenRRy plenRRy drugs to collect my hard earned 6K.. when in reality.. all i needed to do was wash my mouth with Salt and Water on a steady. You see?! day light thiefery 😦 Its sad Ada.. really Sad.. that even I see Traditional Form of Medication as Diabolical.. I guess on the long run yeah.. this is something our Generation DEFINITELY needs to correct sharpaLLy.

    Thank for sharing Adaeze of destiny.. This post made me laugh.. Blessings!

    P.S: I really wanna opt in for the Badagry ish eh! but my schedule is unpredictable.. Will on a low key be tracking your planning and will jump in when I can.. Weldone Otunne.


    1. Lol @ they used needle and plenty drugs to collect your hard earned 6k, well man must wack na.
      Amaechi’s friend did not even try at all sha, see denying of gender on top pain but that stuff can be painful sha. When my brother broke his leg ehn, I used cry with him just because he cried so much, all of us except Daddy (he used to cry inside) would cry with him.
      As for Badagry, I’m looking at first Saturday in March


  15. Lovely write up!!!!!!!! I believe in the usage of “some” traditional medicine. I have all sorts of agbo in my house for my kids even though i cant stand the taste of any. I would gladly use them first before taking a trip to the hospital.


  16. Hello Ada. I know u must be wondering where the heck i disappeared to. Nne, im still alive and kicking shaa.
    For the Badagry trip, im interested although i can’t really predict my schedule and im saying this soo late.
    Anyway, my email is smorckol@gmail.com
    Waiting to hear from u


  17. Thanks for the post. I just heard about arthroscopic surgery from my doctor in Chicago IL. Can any knee replacement, shoulder replacement, or other joint replacement be done arthroscopically?


  18. Thanks for the post. I just heard about arthroscopic surgery from my doctor in Chicago IL. Can any knee replacement, shoulder replacement, or other joint replacement be done arthroscopically?


  19. Hi Adaeze,
    I came across your article and it’s really informative. I Would like to know the location of this bonesetter, I have a situation at hand.
    Looking forward to your response.


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